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Ebook Οι νεκροί by James Joyce read! Book Title: Οι νεκροί
Date of issue: February 1996
ISBN: No data
ISBN 13: No data
The author of the book: James Joyce
Language: English
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 877 KB
Edition: ΥΨΙΛΟΝ

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Οι νεκροί γράφτηκαν τη χρονιά 1906-1907. Είναι το τελευταίο διήγημα των «Δουβλινέζων», της συλλογής των δεκαπέντε διηγημάτων που ο Τζόυς αρχισε να γράφει το 1904, σε ηλικκία 22 ετών, και δεν εκδόθηκε παρά το 1914, μετά από πολλές δυσκολίες και αφού πέρασε διαδοχικά από τα χέρια τριών εκδοτών. Με τους Δουβλινέζους ο Τζόυς θέλησε, καθώς ο ίδιος εξήγησε, να συνθέσει ένα κεφάλαιο της ηθικής ιστορίας της χώρας του, και διάλεξε το Δουβλίνο ως τόπο όπου εκτυλίσσονται οι ιστορίες του, γιατί πίστευε πως η πόλη αυτή ήταν το κέντρο μιας ηθικής «παράλυσης» -κι όταν λέει «παράλυση» δεν εννοεί χαλάρωση των ηθών, αλλά την απώλεια βουλητικών προβολών, την απουσία νευροψυχικού τόνου, τον εν ζωή θάνατο. Οι ήρωες των διηγημάτων αυτών, οι Δουβλινέζοι, συνειδητοποιούν στο κρίσιμο σημείο της ιστορίας πως είναι θύματα αυτής της παράλυσης, και η συνειδητοποίηση αυτή συνιστά γι' αυτούς μιάν αποκάλυψη (epiphany). Αυτά τα δύο μοτίβα (παράλυση-αποκάλυψη) διατρέχουν όλα τα διηγήματα των Δουβλινέζων και κορυφώνονται στους Νεκρούς, με τη συντριπτική αποκάλυψη και αυτεπίγνωση του Γκάμπριελ Κονρόυ, μέσα από αναρίθμητες νύξεις, τροπές και τεχνάσματα της γραφής, που προετοιμάζουν και παραπέμπουν στην τελική, αριστοτεχνική έκβαση.

Η έκδοση περιλαμβάνει πρόλογο του Άρη Μπερλή, σημειώσεις για το Δουβλίνο και την ιρλανδέζικη ιστορία οι οποίες λειτουργούν επεξηγηματικά στο κείμενο, καθώς και το άρθρο του Ρίτσαρντ 'Ελλμαν «Το ιστορικό των Νεκρών».

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Ebook Οι νεκροί read Online! James Joyce, Irish novelist, noted for his experimental use of language in such works as Ulysses (1922) and Finnegans Wake (1939). Joyce's technical innovations in the art of the novel include an extensive use of interior monologue; he used a complex network of symbolic parallels drawn from the mythology, history, and literature, and created a unique language of invented words, puns, and allusions.

James Joyce was born in Dublin, on February 2, 1882, as the son of John Stanislaus Joyce, an impoverished gentleman, who had failed in a distillery business and tried all kinds of professions, including politics and tax collecting. Joyce's mother, Mary Jane Murray, was ten years younger than her husband. She was an accomplished pianist, whose life was dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. In spite of their poverty, the family struggled to maintain a solid middle-class facade.

From the age of six Joyce, was educated by Jesuits at Clongowes Wood College, at Clane, and then at Belvedere College in Dublin (1893-97). In 1898 he entered the University College, Dublin. Joyce's first publication was an essay on Ibsen's play When We Dead Awaken. It appeared in the Fortnightly Review in 1900. At this time he also began writing lyric poems.

After graduation in 1902 the twenty-year-old Joyce went to Paris, where he worked as a journalist, teacher and in other occupations under difficult financial conditions. He spent a year in France, returning when a telegram arrived saying his mother was dying. Not long after her death, Joyce was traveling again. He left Dublin in 1904 with Nora Barnacle, a chambermaid who he married in 1931.

Joyce published Dubliners in 1914, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in 1916, a play Exiles in 1918 and Ulysses in 1922. In 1907 Joyce had published a collection of poems, Chamber Music.

At the outset of the First World War, Joyce moved with his family to Zürich. In Zürich Joyce started to develop the early chapters of Ulysses, which was first published in France because of censorship troubles in the Great Britain and the United States, where the book became legally available only in 1933. In March 1923 Joyce started in Paris his second major work, Finnegans Wake, suffering at the same time chronic eye troubles caused by glaucoma. The first segment of the novel appeared in Ford Madox Ford's transatlantic review in April 1924, as part of what Joyce called Work in Progress. The final version was published in 1939.

Some critics considered the work a masterpiece, though many readers found it incomprehensible. After the fall of France in WWII, Joyce returned to Zürich, where he died on January 13, 1941, still disappointed with the reception of Finnegans Wake.

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