# Read Essai Sur La Theorie Des Nombres by Adrien-Marie Legendre Free Online

Book Title: Essai Sur La Theorie Des NombresDate of issue: July 20th 2009ISBN: 1108001734ISBN 13: 9781108001731The author of the book: Adrien-Marie LegendreLanguage: EnglishFormat files: PDFThe size of the: 2.16 MBEdition: Cambridge University Press |

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Adrien-Marie Legendre (1752 1833), one of the great French mathematicians active in the Revolutionary period, made important contributions to number theory, statistics, mathematical analysis and algebra. He taught at the Ecole Militaire, where he was a colleague of Laplace, and made his name with a paper on the trajectory of projectiles which won a prize of the Berlin Academy in 1782, and brought him to the attention of Lagrange. In 1794 he published Elements de geometrie, which remained a textbook for over 100 years. The first edition of his Essai sur la theorie des nombres was published in 1798, and the much improved second edition, which is offered here, in 1808. In it Legendre had taken account of criticism by Gauss of the mathematical proofs in the first edition, though he was bitter at the manner in which his younger rival had claimed credit for some of his solutions."### Read information about the author

Adrien-Marie Legendre (French pronunciation: [adʁiɛ̃ maʁi ləʒɑ̃ːdʁ]) (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician. Legendre made numerous contributions to mathematics. Well-known and important concepts such as the Legendre polynomials and Legendre transformation are named after him.Most of his work was brought to perfection by others: his work on roots of polynomials inspired Galois theory; Niels Henrik Abel's work on elliptic functions was built on Legendre's; some of Carl Friedrich Gauss' work in statistics and number theory completed that of Legendre. He developed the least squares method, which has broad application in linear regression, signal processing, statistics, and curve fitting; this was published in 1806 as an appendix to his book on the paths of comets. Today, the term "least squares method" is used as a direct translation from the French "méthode des moindres carrés".

In 1830 he gave a proof of Fermat's last theorem for exponent n = 5, which was also proven by Lejeune Dirichlet in 1828.

In number theory, he conjectured the quadratic reciprocity law, subsequently proved by Gauss; in connection to this, the Legendre symbol is named after him. He also did pioneering work on the distribution of primes, and on the application of analysis to number theory. His 1798 conjecture of the Prime number theorem was rigorously proved by Hadamard and de la Vallée-Poussin in 1896.

Legendre did an impressive amount of work on elliptic functions, including the classification of elliptic integrals, but it took Niels Henrik Abel's stroke of genius to study the inverses of Jacobi's functions and solve the problem completely.

He is known for the Legendre transformation, which is used to go from the Lagrangian to the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics. In thermodynamics it is also used to obtain the enthalpy and the Helmholtz and Gibbs (free) energies from the internal energy. He is also the name giver of the Legendre polynomials, solutions to Legendre's differential equation, which occur frequently in physics and engineering applications, e.g. electrostatics.

Legendre is best known as the author of Éléments de géométrie, which was published in 1794 and was the leading elementary text on the topic for around 100 years. This text greatly rearranged and simplified many of the propositions from Euclid's Elements to create a more effective textbook.

For two centuries, until the recent discovery of the error in 2005, books, paintings and articles have incorrectly shown a side-view portrait of the obscure French politician Louis Legendre (1752–1797) as that of the mathematician Legendre. The error arose from the fact that the sketch was labelled simply "Legendre". The only known portrait of Legendre, recently unearthed, is found in the 1820 book Album de 73 portraits-charge aquarellés des membres de I’Institut, a book of caricatures of seventy-three members of the Institut de France in Paris by the French artist Julien-Leopold Boilly.

The Moon crater Legendre is named after him.

Main-belt asteroid 26950 Legendre is named after him.

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